Ever wondered how an app like Amazon, find products that you might be interested in buying? Or how does Netflix give you amazing recommendations that perfectly align with what you like? Well, the answer to both of these questions is simply, Machine Learning.
In a world that is constantly looking for ways to reduce human efforts, we need ways to build programs that can change themselves and produce custom results according to the situation. And that need resulted in the birth of what is now known as Machine Learning.
Machine Learning is slowly growing to be a staple diet of numerous software building companies
Machine Learning in Simple Words
To start with, Machine Learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence.
Machine learning is the study that allows computers to learn and create their programmes to make them more human-like in their actions and decisions.
The least amount of human interaction possible can accomplish this. The learning process is automated and enhanced based on the machines’ experiences along the way.
Machines are fed high-quality data, and different algorithms can create machine-learning models based on that data. The type of data available determines the algorithm to be used and the type of operation to be automated.
You can find Machine Learning examples all over the place.
In response to our voice commands, digital assistants scan the web and play music. Websites suggest goods, movies, and songs based on what we’ve already purchased, viewed, or listened to.
Spam filters keep unwanted emails out of our inboxes. Medical image recognition systems assist doctors in detecting tumours that they would otherwise miss.
Our floors are vacuumed by robots while we do something more productive with our time. And self-driving vehicles have already begun to appear on the roads.
Importance of Machine Learning?
Many tasks, especially those that only humans can perform with their innate intelligence, can be automated. The only way to replicate this intelligence in computers is to use machine learning as it provides a facility that is rising as a new need of our current technological progress.
Machine Learning can help businesses in automating repetitive tasks. It also aids in the automation and rapid development of data analysis models. Various industries rely on massive amounts of data to improve their operations and make intelligent decisions.
Machine Learning is involved in creating models capable of processing and analysing vast quantities of complex data and producing accurate results. These models are correct and scalable, and they operate in a shorter time frame.
Businesses can take advantage of profitable opportunities while avoiding uncertain risks by developing such precise Machine Learning models.
Image recognition, text generation, and a slew of other technologies are making their way into the real world. Machine learning is providing computer science experts with more opportunities to shine as sought-after practitioners in their respective fields.
Types of Machine Learning
Now that we know what machine learning is and how ML algorithms work, it becomes essential for us to learn about the various types of machine learning.
Supervised Machine Learning
Supervised machine learning algorithms can use labelled examples to apply what they’ve learned in the past to new data and predict future events.
The learning algorithm creates an inferred function to make predictions about the output values based on a known training dataset analysis. After enough preparation, the system will provide goals for any new data.
The learning algorithm can also compare its output to the right, intended outcome and detect errors, allowing the model to be modified as needed.
Since the algorithm can compare the model’s results to actual labelled results, supervised machine learning needs fewer training data than other machine learning approaches and makes training simpler.
However, adequately labelled data is costly to plan. There’s a risk of overfitting or creating a model that’s too dependent on and skewed by the training data that it can’t manage new data variations accurately.
Unsupervised Machine Learning
Unsupervised machine learning algorithms, on the other hand, are used where the data being trained is neither categorised nor named.
Unsupervised learning is more about finding trends and associations in data that humans would overlook.
Unsupervised learning investigates how systems can infer a function from unlabeled data to represent a hidden structure. The system doesn’t determine the correct output, but it explores the data and can infer invisible structures from unlabeled data using datasets.
Consider spam detection: people produce far more email than a team of data scientists could ever mark or identify in their lives. An unsupervised learning algorithm can sift through large amounts of data to find features and patterns that indicate spam.
Semi-supervised Machine Learning
Since they use both labelled and unlabeled data for training – usually a small amount of labelled data and a large amount of unlabeled data – Semi-supervised machine learning algorithms fall somewhere between supervised and unsupervised learning.
This approach significantly increases the learning accuracy in systems that use it. Semi-supervised learning is typically used where the acquired labelled data necessitates qualified and appropriate tools to train/learn from it.
It can overcome the issue of not having enough labelled data to train a supervised learning algorithm (or not being able to afford to classify enough data).
Obtaining unlabeled data, on the other hand, usually does not necessitate additional resources.
Reinforcement machine learning algorithms are a type of learning algorithm that interacts with its surroundings by generating actions and detecting errors.
Machine learning models are taught to make a series of decisions based on the rewards and feedback they receive for their actions in this process. Essential characteristics of reinforcement learning are trial and error search and delayed reward.
During the learning process, the computer learns to accomplish a goal in dynamic and unpredictable circumstances and is rewarded each time it succeeds. This approach enables machines and software agents to automatically evaluate the best behaviour in a given situation to optimise their performance.
For the agent to learn which behaviour is better, simple reward feedback is required, known as the reinforcement signal.
Reinforcement learning differs from Supervised learning in that there is no right or wrong response, so the reinforcement agent determines how to complete a task by itself. When there is no training data set available, the computer learns from its own experiences.
After carefully examining the types and importance of machine learning, let us now focus on the various areas where machine learning is applied.
How does a Machine Learning Algorithm work?
To answer this question, I’ll be taking the help of a youtube video that you’ll find below.
In the video above, the aim is to create a program that can beat the game all of us are familiar with. So how does it happen?
The program is created to look for a reward, that in this case is the highest score possible. The feedback gained on every run is used by the program to improve itself until it reaches the desired goal.
The first time around, all the code does is make the object jump repeatedly. While it does give results, they are not good enough. After a few alterations to its code, the algorithm used the distance between objects to time its jumps and that gives us good results. Until the high flying bird comes along to stop our progress.
Taking into account the bird and how to deal with it, the algorithm changes the code one last time to give us a run that is quite impressive at the least.
This was a simple example of how a machine learning algorithm works, changing the program according to the desired results and the feedback gained from individual runs.
Applications of Machine Learning
- Face Recognition
It is one of the most widely used applications of machine learning. You may identify an object as a digital image in a variety of circumstances. The measurements define the outputs of each pixel in a digital image.
The intensity of each pixel in a black and white picture serves as one indicator.
Automatic Friend Tagging Suggestions on Facebook or any other social media site are among the most popular Machine Learning applications.
Face detection and image recognition are used by Facebook to automatically find the face of a person that matches its database. It then recommends that we tag that person using DeepFace.
- Speech Recognition
Automatic speech recognition, abbreviated as ASR, is a technology that converts speech into digital text. Its uses include recognising users based on their voices and performing tasks using human voice inputs.
To train the model, speech patterns and vocabulary are fed into the system.
A software framework recognises spoken words in speech recognition. This Machine Learning application’s measurements may be a series of numbers that reflect the speech signal.
We may divide the signal into segments based on the presence of specific words or phonemes. The intensities or energy can represent the speech signal in different time-frequency bands in each part.
A typical example of a speech recognition system is Google doc’s Voice typing feature.
- Medical Diagnosis
Machine Learning plays a critical role in diagnosing illnesses and disorders that are otherwise difficult to diagnose. With Machine Learning taking over, radiotherapy is also improving.
Another critical application is early-stage drug development, which uses innovations like precision medicine and next-generation sequencing.
Clinical trials take a long time and cost a lot of money to finish and produce results. Machine Learning-based predictive analytics will help to enhance these aspects and produce better results.
It is argued that effective implementation of machine learning approaches will aid in introducing computer-based systems in the healthcare setting, allowing medical experts’ work to be facilitated and enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency and quality of medical care.
Many companies today use recommendation systems to interact efficiently with their website’s visitors. It makes suggestions for items, movies, web series, songs, and much more.
You bought something online a few days ago, and now you’re getting emails with shopping recommendations. If not, you may have found that the shopping website or app suggests certain products similar to your preferences.
Product suggestions are made based on your behaviour on the website/app, previous purchases, products liked or added to cart, brand preferences, and so on.
E-commerce sites like Amazon, Flipkart, and others, as well as Spotify, Netflix, and other web-streaming platforms, are the most popular use-cases of recommendation systems.
Machine learning demonstrates the ability to make cyberspace a safer environment, with one example being the detection of online financial fraud.
Machine learning can extract information from various sources, including incident reports, warnings, blog posts, and more, to recognise possible threats, inform security analysts, and speed up response times.
Paypal, for example, employs machine learning to combat money laundering. The firm employs a collection of tools to compare millions of transactions and differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate transactions between buyers and sellers.
What does the future hold for Machine Learning?
Machine learning is advancing at a rapid pace and has a lot of untapped potential which we can leverage to our advantage in the near future, some of which are discussed below.
Corporations may fine-tune their understanding of their target audience using machine learning to inform product growth, marketing, and sales. Developers and designers can customise products much more precisely than ever before, optimising value for both the company and the customer, thanks to algorithms that break down exactly how their products are used.
Over the next few years, search engines will boost both the user and admin experience by leaps and bounds. With the advancement of neural networks and deep learning, future search engines will be much more capable of providing answers and observations highly important to the user who is searching.
Building machine learning products will be more enjoyable in the future, and these systems will perform better. As Machine Learning tools become more automated, data scientists and Machine Learning engineers will spend more time constructing great models and less time on the repetitive yet essential tasks that come with running production Machine Learning systems.
Machine Learning will give any business, big or small, a competitive edge because things that are currently done manually will be done by machines tomorrow.
Machine learning is there to stay with us and will broadly impact our daily lives in the near future.
In the end, all I would like to say to you on the subject of Machine Learning is that while it is a new piece of technology, it is here with us to stay. New developments are taking place every second. It is a fast-moving world, and you need to go with the flow.
The future belongs to technology, and we need to learn how to control it before it begins to control us.